What is meant by emergent perspectives list and describe 3 emergent perspectives on crime causation

Finally, these residents are less likely to form or support community organizations, including educational, religious, and recreational organizations.

consensus theory of crime

Further, these females are frequently abused and exploited by men on the street. Finally, strain is more likely to lead to delinquency among individuals who are disposed to delinquency.

What is meant by emergent perspectives list and describe 3 emergent perspectives on crime causation

The individual's drug use has been negatively reinforced. Most of social learning theory involves a description of the three mechanisms by which individuals learn to engage in crime from these others: differential reinforcement, beliefs, and modeling. Data indicate that individuals who are reinforced for crime are more likely to engage in subsequent crime, especially when they are in situations similar to those where they were previously reinforced. Data provide some support for these arguments. First, some people generally approve of certain minor forms of crime, like certain forms of consensual sexual behavior, gambling, "soft" drug use, and—for adolescents—alcohol use, truancy, and curfew violation. All people, poor as well as rich, are encouraged to work hard so that they might make a lot of money. Rather than describing the different versions of control theory, an integrated control theory that draws on all of their insights is presented. These rules may specify such things as who the person may associate with and the activities in which they can and cannot engage. These values do not explicitly approve of or justify crime, but they make crime appear a more attractive alternative than would otherwise be the case. As a result, institutions like the family, school, and political system are less able to effectively socialize individuals against crime and sanction deviant behavior.

Vold, George B. Hirschi, Travis. The effect of this, critical criminologists tend to claim, is that conventional criminologies fail to 'lay bare the structural inequalities which underpin the processes through which laws are created and enforced' Taylor Walton and Young and that ' deviancy and criminality' are 'shaped by society's larger structure of power and institutions' ibid.

Situations conducive to crime The above theories focus on the factors that create a general willingness or predisposition to engage in crime, locating such factors in the immediate and larger social environment. This is especially true of anger and frustration, which energize the individual for action, create a desire for revenge, and lower inhibitions.

An irritable individual, for example, is more likely to respond to strain with crime.

define evidence-based policing, how it works, and its importance for policing today.

It is claimed that the major cause of low self-control is "ineffective child-rearing. Of significant importance in understanding the positions of most of the feminists above is that gender is taken to be a social construct.

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Crime Causation: Sociological Theories