Evaluation of marxist theory of social class
While this constituted a somewhat different form than industrial capital, this meant that the land was also used as capital, to accumulate. While Marx also mentions various ranks and orders of society, such as vassals and knights, the forms of struggle between classes are primarily viewed as occurring around control and use of property, the means of production, and production as a whole, and the manner in which these are used.
Marxist view on crime and deviance essay
Here the bourgeoisie is historically created and is an actor in politics, economics and history. For example, Marx notes that burghers or members of the bourgeoisie in early capitalist Europe: the class in its turn achieves an independent existence over against the individuals, so that the latter find their conditions of existence predestined, and hence have their position in life and their personal development assigned to them by their class, become subsumed under it. Giddens notes: Classes are constituted by the relationship of groupings of individuals to the ownership of private property in the means of production. This exploitative work relationship recreates or reproduces itself continually. Marx also expected that this class would tend to disappear, with most becoming displaced from the land and joining the proletariat. The latter is a stratification approach that begins by examining the characteristics of individuals, and from this amassing a view of social class structure as a whole. While there have been tendencies in this direction, especially among the farmers and peasantry, there has been no clear long run trend toward decline of the middle class. People who had subsisted on the land were denied the possibility of making a living on the land, and they become propertyless.
Historically, the bourgeoisie began cities of medieval Europe, with the development of traders, merchants, craftspersons, industrialists, manufacturers and others whose economic survival and ability to increase wealth came from trade, commerce, or industry.
Many of those who were supported by working for the aristocracy lost their livelihood — the "disbanding of the feudal retainers and the dissolution of the monasteries.
Work and the labour process in the capitalist mode of production are organized so that workers remain propertyless members of the proletariat. Giddens notes: Classes are constituted by the relationship of groupings of individuals to the ownership of private property in the means of production.
Marx's view was that the successful members of the middle class would become members of the bourgeoisie, while the unsuccessful would be forced into the proletariat.
To the extent that these members act in society, they act as representatives of their class, although Marx would leave some room for individual freedom of action. Although at the same time, the two opposed interests are also partners in the sense that both capital and labour are required in production and an exploitative relationship means an exploiter and someone being exploited.
Karl marx social class
Referring to the emergence of the burghers or bourgeoisie as a class in early capitalist Europe, Marx notes how The separate individuals form a class only insofar as they have to carry on a common battle against another class; otherwise they are on hostile terms with each other as competitors. These people became free wage labourers, free from feudal ties and free from a source of livelihood. Workers have a lot more say, partly due to unionisation and partly due to enlightened management techniques. The bourgeoisie or capitalists are the owners of capital, purchasing and exploiting labour power, using the surplus value from employment of this labour power to accumulate or expand their capital. Today we still talk of free labour markets and the dual meaning is much the same. Since Marx's prediction has not come true, sociologists and other writers have devoted much attention to explaining this middle grouping — what is its basis, what are the causes of its stability or growth, how it fits into the class structure, and what are the effects of its existence on proletariat and bourgeoisie. The relationship between classes is a contradictory or antagonistic relationship, one that has struggle, conflict, and contradictory interests associated with it. Both competition and unity can thus characterize a class; there can be very cut-throat competition among capitalists, but when the property relations and existence of the bourgeois class is threatened, the bourgeoisie acts together to protect itself.
Given the above three points, it seems ludicrous to argue that the superstructure is controlled by the Bourgeoisie and is used to create false consciousness.
An elite may have such power, but might only be able to administer or manage, with real control of the means of production in the hands of owners.
With respect to family farmers as a group, much the same could be said. He does not consider this group to be of any importance in terms of potential for creating socialism, if anything they may be considered to have a conservative influence.
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