Why should God be against the mind that He Himself has put into us? John pronounced sin-jinViscount Bolingbrokeoutstanding Tory statesman who had to flee England in Indeed, several lines in the Essay on Man, particularly in the first Epistle, are simply statements from the Moralist done in verse.
Section 4. Following are the major ideas in Essay on Man: 1 a God of infinite wisdom exists; 2 He created a world that is the best of all possible ones; 3 the plenum, or all-embracing whole of the universe, is real and hierarchical; 4 authentic good is that of the whole, not of isolated parts; 5 self-love and social love both motivate humans' conduct; 6 virtue is attainable; 7 "One truth is clear, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT.
Philosophers of that time rejected the ideas of the Middle Ages and Renaissance by establishing their own points of view. That throughout the whole visible world, an universal order and gradation in the sensual and mental faculties is observed, which causes a subordination of creature to creature, and of all creatures to Man.
The second book was to contain another set of epistles, which in contrast to the first book would focus on subjects such as human reason, the practical and impractical aspects of varied arts and sciences, human talent, the use of learning, the science of the world, and wit, together with "a satire against the misapplication" of those same disciplines.
The cardinals of both popes who elected a new pope, Alexander V, undertook this reform. In response, Pope declares the species of man to be a "fool", absent of knowledge and plagued by "ignorance" in spite of all the progress achieved through science.
For in the Lisbon poem and in Candide, he picked up Pope's recurring phrase "Whatever is, is right" and made mockery of it: "Tout est bien" in a world filled with misery!